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Citing Sources: APA EXAMPLES

APA Basics

This guide is based on the 6th edition (2010) of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

APA uses the author/date method of in-text citation. Include in parentheses the author's last name and the year of publication after all direct quotes and paraphrased segments of your paper. Page numbers are included for direct quotes and some paraphrased content: Example: (Pollan, 2005, p. 146). For more information, including other methods of incorporating quotes and paraphrases into your paper, see the "Avoiding Plagiarism" tab and the Recommended Guides section of the "Basics" tab..

APA requires the use of hanging indents and double spacing; however, check with your instructor, as some instructors request single spacing!

Watch these in the references list:

Author: Use initial of author's first name (not entire first name)

Author: If multiple, separate with commas, but precede the last one with an & instead.

Author: List up to 7.  If 8 or more, list the first 6, then use ..., then give the last author.

Author: Use (Ed.) or (Eds.) if  "author(s)" are editor(s).

Publication year: Enter after author with ( ), not at end

Capitalize only the first word (and any proper nouns) of the title or subtitle of a book, article, or chapter

Capitalize all significant words of the title of a periodical.

Journal title and volume: Use italics (not underlines)

Include the DOI if provided.

Do not include a retrieval date unless the source may change over time (eg., a wiki).

Article from a periodical: It is not necessary to include the name of the database unless the information is difficult to locate.

APA Style Format

Official Guidance from APA

Samples of American Psychological Association Basic Format for References List

GENERAL FORMAT

Author, A. A. (Date). Title. Source.

  • No author?  Substitute title for author
  • No date? Use n.d. (indicates no date)
  • No date, but year can be reasonably approximated? Use ca and your estimated year, and use square brackets: [ca 2008]
  • No title?  Describe the document inside square brackets
     
  • APA official guidance:
    How to Write an APA Style Reference When Information Is Missing

 

Book

   - Capitalize just the first word of the title and any subtitle.
   - Mention edition (if not first ed.) and/or volume number (if a multi-volume work) in parentheses after the title.
   - For publication location in a U.S. city, give the city name and two-letter USPS abbreviation for the state, i.e.: Madison, WI

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Subtitle of

      work (xx ed., Vol. xx). City, ST: Publisher.

 

Book Chapter

   - Capitalize just the first word of the title and any subtitle.
   - Mention edition (if not first ed.) and/or volume number (if a multi-volume work) along with page range in parentheses after the title.
   - For publication location in a U.S. city, give the city name and two-letter USPS abbreviation for the state, i.e.: Madison, WI

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year of publication). Title of

     chapter. In D. D. Editor & E. E. Editor (Eds.), Title of work: Subtitle

     of work (xx ed., Vol. xx, pp. xxx-xxx). City, ST: Publisher.

 

Article in a Periodical, Print or Microform

   - Include the Digitial Object Identifier (DOI) if provided.
   - For journals, include just the year of publication within the parentheses: (1984)
   - For magazines and newspapers, include the year, month and date within the parentheses: (1984, July 5)

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year, Month Date). Title of

    article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number if available), page#-page#.  

    doi:xx.xxxx/xxxxxxxxxx


Article in a Periodical, Retrieved from a Library Database

   - Include the Digitial Object Identifier (DOI) if provided. 
   - It is not necessary to list the name of the database, the retrieval date, or a database item or accession number.
   - For journals, include just the year of publication within the parentheses: (1984)
   - For magazines and newspapers, include the year, month and date within the parentheses: (1984, July 5)

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year, Month Date). Title of article. Title of 

     Periodical, volume number(issue number if available), page#-page#.

     doi:xx.xxxx/xxxxxxxxxx
 

Article in an Online Periodical (not from a library database)

   - Provide a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) when it is available, otherwise provide the URL.
   - For journals, include just the year of publication within the parentheses: (1984)
   - For magazines and newspapers, include the year, month and date within the parentheses: (1984, July 5)

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year, Month Date).

     Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number if available).

     doi:xx.xxxx/xxxxxxxxxx

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year, Month Date).

     Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number if available).

     Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

 

Web Document, Page, or Report

   - Identify the publisher or organization name as part of the retrieval statement, unless the publisher
     or organization is the group author.
   - If available, include the report number in parentheses following the title of the work.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication).

     Title of document (Report number). Retrieved from Publisher name  

     website: http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Group Author Name. (Date of publication).

     Title of document (Report number). Retrieved from  

     http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

 

Personal Communication

   - These are non-recoverable forms of communication, including:
         private letters, memos, non-archived electronic communications such as private emails, 
         personal interviews, telephone conversations
   - These sources are not included in the reference list!  Personal communications are cited in text only.  

Joe Gow told me (personal communication, April 2, 2010) that he would make it happen.
 

The Chancellor proceeded to recount the origins of the name, Fur Low Riders (J. Gow, personal  

communication, April 3, 2009).

 

 

YouTube Video

   - Provide the screen name if the actual name of the author is not given.
   - The title of the video is not italicized.

CheshHashim. (2009, November 10). Sanctus: UWL Concert Choir [Video file]. Retrieved

     from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qELsgqRtQkc 

 

Images

   - Use [Photograph], [Painting], etc. after the title to indicate the type of image.
   - More examples (Landmark College) 
   - More examples (Univ. of Maryland)

Hicker, R. (n.d.). Soaring Eagle [Photograph]. Retrieved from 

     http://www.hickerphoto.com/data/media/161/soaring-eagle_6822.jpg 

 

 

Sample APA Citations for Business Resources

APA is the recommended citation style for the social sciences, including business disciplines.

 

IBISWorld: (cite the report used)

Lerman, S. (2016, September). IBISWorld industry

     report 61111a. Public schools in the US. Retrieved

     from IBISWorld database.
 

Simmons OneView: (cite the study/dataset used)

Simmons Research. (2014). Spring 2014 NHCS adult study

      12-month [Data file]. Retrieved from Simmons 

      OneView database.

Simmons Research. (2015). Spring 2015 SimmonsLOCAL

      (flexible markets) [Data file]. Retrieved from

      Simmons OneView database.
 

ReferenceUSA U.S. Businesses: (cite the database record used)

Infogroup. (2016). Kate's on State [Database record].

      Retrieved from ReferenceUSA U.S. Businesses

      database.

 

Many more APA citation examples are available. 

Recommended Guides

These are comprehensive citation guides recommended by librarians.