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Citing Sources: MLA EXAMPLES

MLA Basics

This guide is based on the 8th edition (2016) of the MLA Handbook.

MLA (Modern Language Association) uses the author/page number method for in-text citation. Include in parentheses the author's last name and the appropriate page number after all direct quotations and paraphrased content in your paper: Example: (Pollan 42). For more information, including other methods of incorporating quotes and paraphrased content in your paper, see the "Avoiding Plagiarism" tab and the Recommended Guides section of the "Basics" tab.

For the Works Cited list, MLA requires the use of hanging indents.

Watch these:

Author: Use the full name as given in the source

Author: If one or two authors, give the full names of both

Author: If three or more authors, give the first author and indicate: et al.

Article title: Use " " (not italics or underline)

Journal/Book title: Use italics

URL: omit http:// or https://

URL: Use a DOI if one is available.  If not, use a permalink/ persistent/ stable link if one is available.

MLA Style Format

Recommended Guides

These are comprehensive citation guides recommended by librarians.

Samples of Modern Language Association (8th, 2016) Basic Format for the Works Cited list

Book

- Capitalize all significant title and subtitle words.
- Place of publication is normally not included.


Lastname, Firstname M. and Firstname2 Lastname2. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. 

     Publisher, Year of Publication.
 

Lastname, Firstname M., et al., editors. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. 

     Publisher, Year of Publication.

 

Article in a Periodical


Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Article." Title of Journal,

     vol. nn, no. nn, date of issue, pp. nn-nn.

 

Article in a Periodical, Retrieved from a Library Database

- Give the inclusive page numbers when given.


Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal,

    
vol. nn, no. nn, date of issue, pp. nn-nn. Database name,

     DOIorPersistentURL.

 

Article in an Online Periodical (not from a library database)

- Give the inclusive page numbers when given.


Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Article.” Title of Journal,

    
vol. nn, no. nn, date of issue, pp. nn-nn. Website name,

     URL.

 

Web Document/Page/Report, Web Video, Web Images

 - If citing a whole web site, omit "Title of Work".
 - The Accessed date (including the word, Accessed) is generally optional, but it is required if there is no publication date.
 
Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Work.” Website name,

     Day published Month published Year published,

     URL. Accessed Day Month Year.

Citing Digital Content in MLA (7th, 2009)

Taken from Lafayette College's Archives and Special Collections website. You can access it directly here.

Digital Collections Note: MLA no longer requires the use of URLs in MLA citations. For instructors who still wish to require the use of URLs, MLA suggest that the URL appear within angle brackets after the date of access. The URL is given in the samples below.

Magazine Article: Shaw, Diane Windham. “Lafayette and Slavery.” Lafayette Alumni News. Winter 2007. Digital. 13 Jan. 2015. <http://digital.lafayette.edu/collections/magazine/lafalummag- 20070100>.

Newspaper Article: Kelley, Michael. “Damaged Futures. Research Finds Student Athletes are at Greater Risk for Long-Term Health.” The Lafayette. 9 May 2014. Digital. 13 Jan. 2015. <http://digital.lafayette.edu/collections/newspaper/20140509>.

Photograph: “Students Disrupt ROTC Parade on Fisher Field.” 4 May 1969. Historical Photograph Collection. Digital. 13 Jan. 2015. <http://digital.lafayette.edu/collections/historicalphotos/hpc-0269>.